Aluminium Die Casting: Essential Insights for Engineers

author avatar

Last updated on 05 May, 2024

Aluminium Die Casting: Essential Insights for Engineers

Unlock the potential of aluminium die casting in modern engineering applications through advanced techniques and innovative solutions.

Aluminium die casting stands as a revolutionary manufacturing process, reshaping the landscape of engineering. By infusing molten aluminium alloy into steel mold cavities under high pressure, this technology produces complex, high-precision components with exceptional surface finish and dimensional accuracy. Its intricate die design, precise temperature control, and rapid cooling rates, enabling the creation of parts with thin walls and delicate geometries. 

Renowned for its versatility and efficiency have made it a cornerstone solution for industries such as automotive, aerospace, consumer electronics, and construction. Its ability to fabricate lightweight, durable, and cost-effective components has  not only broadened the horizons of product design but also fueled innovation and sustainability initiatives throughout various sectors. In this guide, we delve deep into the mechanics, applications, and advancements of aluminum die casting, exploring its profound impact on modern engineering and manufacturing.

Fundamentals of Aluminium Die Casting

Melting and Injection

The process commences with the melting of aluminium alloy in a high-temperature furnace. This crucial step ensures the metal reaches its molten state, ready for the next phase. Once molten, the aluminium alloy is injected into a steel mold cavity, or die, under considerable pressure. This pressure is essential for swiftly filling the intricate details of the die cavity, ensuring the resulting component's precision.

A diagram showing the process of high-pressure die casting, a metal forming process, with four stages depicting the molten metal being injected, solidified, and ejected from the mold.High Pressure Die Casting Process

Rapid Formation

As the molten aluminium fills the die cavity, it solidifies rapidly under the controlled conditions of the die casting process. This rapid solidification not only ensures the integrity of the final component but also contributes to the efficiency of the overall manufacturing process. Once solidified, the finished component is ejected from the die cavity. This step marks the culmination of the aluminium die casting process, delivering a near-net-shape component with excellent surface finish and dimensional accuracy.


  • High Initial Costs: While aluminium die casting offers unparalleled efficiency in high-volume production scenarios, the initial costs associated with tooling can be substantial. This aspect necessitates careful consideration of production volumes and cost-benefit analyses when opting for this manufacturing method.
  • Design Complexity: Designing the die for aluminium die casting requires meticulous attention to detail. Factors such as metal flow, cooling rates, and ejection mechanisms must be carefully optimized to ensure the quality and integrity of the final component.
  • Material Constraints: Aluminium die casting is limited to alloys possessing specific properties conducive to the process. Alloys with good fluidity and low shrinkage are preferred to facilitate complete filling of the die cavity and minimize defects in the finished component.
  • Enduring Significance: Aluminium die casting remains a cornerstone of modern manufacturing across diverse industries. Its ability to produce complex components with exceptional surface finish and dimensional accuracy, coupled with its efficiency in high-volume production, ensures its continued relevance in the ever-evolving landscape of manufacturing technologies.

By leveraging advancements in alloy development, die design optimization, and process control techniques, manufacturers can maximize the potential of aluminium die casting to meet the demands of increasingly complex and demanding market requirements.

Aluminium Die Casting Process

Aluminium die casting is a complex, multi-step procedure demanding meticulous precision and unwavering control at each juncture. Let's explore its intricacies:

  • Die Preparation: The process commences with die preparation, where the steel die undergoes preheating to temperatures ranging between 150-300°C. A coating of release agent, typically graphite-based spray or plunger lubricant, is meticulously applied to facilitate the seamless ejection of the casting.
  • Molten Metal Preparation: Aluminium alloy is meticulously melted in a furnace, reaching temperatures spanning from 650°C to 750°C. The molten metal is then meticulously transferred to the shot sleeve of the die casting machine for further processing.
  • Injection: Within the die casting machine, the molten metal is injected into the die cavity under remarkably high pressures, ranging from 10-175 MPa. This elevated pressure guarantees the complete filling of even the most intricate die geometries, including those with thin walls.
  • Solidification: As the molten metal engulfs the die cavity, it swiftly cools and solidifies under carefully controlled conditions. Controlled cooling rates, facilitated by die temperature regulation and internal cooling lines, foster the development of a refined, fine-grained microstructure, enhancing the mechanical properties of the casting.
  • Ejection and Finishing: Upon solidification, the die is opened, and the casting is gracefully ejected with the aid of ejector pins. Subsequently, the casting undergoes meticulous trimming to eliminate any excess material, commonly referred to as flash. Further processing, including machining, surface treatments, or assembly, is undertaken as necessitated by the final product's specifications.
  • Quality Control: Stringent quality control protocols are implemented throughout the process to guarantee adherence to exacting specifications. Visual inspections, dimensional checks, and sophisticated non-destructive testing techniques, such as X-ray radiography or ultrasonic testing, are deployed to identify and rectify any potential defects, ensuring the utmost quality and integrity of the castings.

Alloy Selection and Properties

Aluminium alloys used in die casting are carefully selected based on their specific properties and characteristics to ensure optimal performance in the final product. The most common alloys used in die casting are from the 3xx.x and 4xx.x series, which offer a balance of good castability, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance.

Alloy Designation

Chemical Composition (wt%)

Yield Strength (MPa)

Tensile Strength (MPa)

Elongation (%)

Key Features






Excellent castability, good mechanical properties, and reasonable corrosion resistance






Higher silicon content improves fluidity and reduces shrinkage porosity






High-silicon alloy with excellent wear resistance and dimensional stability






Good castability and corrosion resistance, higher strength and lower ductility compared to A413






Excellent ductility and good impact resistance, suitable for intricate castings

A380, the most widely used alloy in die casting, offers a good balance of strength and ductility, making it suitable for a wide range of applications. A383, with its higher silicon content, improves fluidity and reduces shrinkage porosity, making it ideal for intricate and thin-walled castings.

B390, a high-silicon alloy, provides excellent wear resistance and dimensional stability, making it suitable for applications that require high hardness and low thermal expansion, such as engine components and compressor parts.

A360 and A413, both high-silicon alloys, offer good castability and corrosion resistance. A360 has higher strength and lower ductility compared to A413, which has excellent ductility and is often used for parts that require good impact resistance.

Technical Specifications and Standards

Adhering to industry standards and specifications is paramount in aluminium die casting to ensure consistent quality, reliability, and interchangeability of components. These standards provide guidelines for various aspects of the die casting process, including:

  • Alloy composition: Standards such as ASTM B85/B85M specify the acceptable ranges for elements like silicon, copper, magnesium, and iron, which influence the castability, strength, and other properties of the alloy.
  • Mechanical properties: Standards define the minimum requirements for tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and hardness, ensuring that the die cast components meet the necessary performance criteria.
  • Dimensional tolerances: ISO 2768 provides guidelines for dimensional tolerances in die casting when no specific tolerances are given on the drawing, ensuring proper fit and function of the components in the final assembly.
  • Testing methods: Standards outline the procedures for testing the chemical composition, mechanical properties, and other characteristics of the die cast components to verify compliance with the specified requirements.

Industry-specific standards, such as IATF 16949 for the automotive industry, set out additional requirements for quality management systems, emphasizing defect prevention and continuous improvement. Meeting these standards is crucial for die casting suppliers to maintain their status as approved vendors and ensure the quality of their products.

To ensure compliance with standards and specifications, die casters must implement robust quality control systems, including:

  • Regular audits and inspections: Conducting internal and external audits to verify that the die casting process adheres to the established standards and procedures.
  • Advanced measuring equipment: Using coordinate measuring machines (CMMs), optical comparators, and other precision tools to verify dimensional accuracy and identify any deviations from the specified tolerances.
  • Material testing: Performing chemical analysis and mechanical testing to ensure that the alloy composition and properties meet the required specifications.
  • Statistical process control (SPC): Monitoring key process parameters and product characteristics to identify and correct any deviations before they result in non-conforming products.

Illustration of Statistical Process Control (SPC) with icons representing manufacturing lines, quality control, standard, monitoring, process, product, specifications, and problems prevention.Statistical process control SPC concept with icons. 

Recommended reading: Design Tips for Die Casting

Advancements in Aluminium Die Casting Technology

The aluminum die casting industry has undergone remarkable technological advancements, revolutionizing processes, improving component quality, and expanding applications. Let's explore some of these breakthroughs:

High-Vacuum Die Casting (HVDC) Technology

High-vacuum die casting (HVDC) technology represents a significant leap forward in aluminum die casting. By evacuating the die cavity to a high vacuum level before injecting molten aluminum, HVDC minimizes air and gas entrapment during the casting process. This results in components with enhanced mechanical properties, reduced porosity, and superior surface finish.

Example: Illustrating the effectiveness of HVDC is the work by Wen et al. (2019), who demonstrated that HVDC could produce aluminum alloy components with a tensile strength of up to 400 MPa and an elongation of 18%, surpassing the properties of conventional die castings.

3D Printing for Conformal Cooling

The integration of 3D printing technology into the die casting industry has opened up new possibilities, particularly in the realm of conformal cooling. 3D printing enables the creation of intricate, conformal cooling channels within the die, allowing for more uniform and efficient cooling. As a result, cycle times are reduced, and dimensional accuracy of castings is significantly improved.

Case study: demonstrating the benefits of 3D printing for conformal cooling comes from Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA), who reported a 20% reduction in cycle time and a 50% improvement in dimensional accuracy by utilizing 3D-printed dies with conformal cooling.

Advanced Process Control Systems and Sensors

The implementation of advanced process control systems and sensors has revolutionized the efficiency and consistency of the die casting process. These systems continuously monitor and adjust critical process parameters, such as melt temperature, injection speed, and pressure, to ensure optimal conditions for each casting cycle. For instance, infrared thermography is employed to monitor the temperature distribution within the die, enabling die casters to identify and rectify hot spots, thereby reducing the risk of defects and enhancing the overall quality of the castings.

Development of New Aluminum Alloys

The ongoing development of new aluminum alloys has expanded the range of applications for die casting alloy components. High-strength, heat-treatable alloys such as A356 and A357 offer exceptional properties, including superior strength-to-weight ratios, fatigue resistance, and corrosion resistance. These alloys are particularly well-suited for demanding operating conditions in automotive and aerospace applications, driving innovation and performance in these industries.

Simulation Tools for Optimization

Simulation tools, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA), have become indispensable in the optimization of die casting processes. By simulating the flow of molten metal and predicting the behavior of die components, these tools allow die casters to optimize designs, reduce scrap rates, and minimize the consumption of raw materials and energy. Consequently, the quality and performance of cast components are improved, while the process becomes more sustainable and environmentally friendly.

Integration of Machine Learning Algorithms

The integration of machine learning algorithms into die casting processes holds immense potential for further optimization. By analyzing vast amounts of process data, these algorithms can identify patterns and correlations that may not be apparent to human operators. This enables real-time adjustments to process parameters and early detection of potential defects, thereby enhancing efficiency and product quality.

Robotics and Automation

Robotics and automation have emerged as key enablers of efficiency and safety in the die casting process. Robots are increasingly utilized for tasks such as die spraying, part removal, and trimming, leading to increased productivity and consistency. Collaborative robots, or cobots, are also gaining traction in die casting facilities, working alongside human operators to perform tasks that require both precision and flexibility.

Simulation and Optimization Techniques

Simulation tools are essential in refining the aluminium die casting process, significantly enhancing quality, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. These tools enable engineers to model the die casting process accurately, allowing for the anticipation and mitigation of potential issues before production.

  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is crucial for analyzing molten metal flow within the die cavity. This analysis identifies potential air entrapment areas and optimizes metal flow to ensure complete cavity filling—key for high-quality casting. Adjustments to gate design and placement based on CFD results can reduce turbulence and porosity, enhancing the structural integrity of the cast parts.
  • Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is vital for simulating the cooling and solidification stages. It provides insights into optimal cooling line placement and rates, ensuring uniform solidification, which is essential for minimizing internal stresses and distortions, thus improving dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties.
  • Thermal stress simulations assess how different cooling rates affect stress distribution within the die and casting. Optimizing this can significantly extend the die's lifespan and reduce defects such as thermal cracking.

Among the industry's prevalent simulation software, MAGMASOFT® stands out with comprehensive capabilities that include both CFD and FEA. It allows for detailed simulations of pouring, solidification, and cooling processes and includes modules for predicting mechanical properties and residual stresses.

Specific simulation algorithms used include:

  • Filling simulation algorithms that determine optimal injection speed and pressure to minimize air entrapment and prevent splashing.

  • Solidification algorithms that help design an effective cooling system to promote progressive and directional solidification, crucial for maintaining cast integrity.

By reducing the trial and error associated with die design and initial production phases, these tools significantly cut down waste and operational costs, promoting a more efficient and cost-effective manufacturing environment.

Recommended reading: Meshing in FEA, CFD & Manufacturing

Innovative Die Design and Materials

Recent advancements in die design and materials have revolutionized aluminum die casting processes and products, ushering in a new era of efficiency and quality.

Close-up view of industrial metal die in a factory setting.High precision die mold for aluminium casting

Conformal Cooling Channels: Targeted Cooling

One of the most significant breakthroughs in die design is the implementation of conformal cooling channels. These channels are intricately tailored to the contours of the die, enabling precise and targeted cooling.  This direct cooling approach minimizes thermal stresses and distortions, yielding products with superior dimensional accuracy and surface finish.

Material Innovations: Enhancing Durability and Performance

Material innovations have also made a substantial impact. The introduction of robust steel grades for die construction, such as hot-work tool steels, offers improved resistance to thermal fatigue. These materials endure the high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of die casting more effectively, reducing the occurrence of cracking and wear. As a result, die life is extended, and operational efficiency is increased.

Surface Treatments: Fortifying Die Surfaces

Surface treatments, including titanium nitride (TiN) coatings, have been developed to fortify die surfaces against erosion and corrosion. These coatings not only enhance the release properties of the die but also contribute to a more consistent casting process. By extending die longevity and minimizing maintenance requirements, surface treatments play a crucial role in optimizing die performance and ensuring the reliability of the casting process.

The integration of advanced materials and design techniques in die construction elevates the mechanical properties and structural integrity of final products. This enables the production of more intricate and precise designs, expanding the potential applications for aluminum die casting. These advancements not only streamline the casting process but also elevate the overall quality and performance of aluminum die cast products. By embracing innovation in die design and materials, manufacturers can stay ahead of the curve and meet the evolving demands of the modern market.

Advanced Process Control and Monitoring

The aluminium die casting industry has significantly benefited from advancements in process control, sensor technology, and real-time monitoring systems. These innovations have revolutionized the die casting process, improving precision, efficiency, and overall quality. 

Modern Process Control Systems

Modern process control systems incorporate sophisticated sensors that provide real-time data on critical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and velocity of the molten aluminium. This data is essential for making immediate adjustments to the process, ensuring that each casting adheres to stringent quality standards.

Sensor Technology 

Advancements in sensor technology include the development of sensors capable of withstanding the extreme temperatures and harsh conditions typical in die casting environments. These high-temperature resistant sensors deliver more accurate and reliable data, enabling finer control over the casting process.

Real-time monitoring systems

Real-time monitoring systems are increasingly integral, offering continuous oversight of the casting process. These systems detect anomalies as they occur, allowing for immediate corrective actions to prevent defects and reduce scrap rates.

By integrating these advanced technologies, aluminium die casting manufacturers can achieve significant improvements in the quality of die cast parts. Precise regulation of process conditions ensures castings with improved mechanical properties, tighter dimensional tolerances, and superior surface finishes. Additionally, these advancements contribute to increased efficiency by reducing cycle times and minimizing downtime, leading to cost savings and enhanced market competitiveness.

Defect Prevention in Aluminium Die casting

In aluminium die casting, defect prevention and quality control are critical to producing high-quality components. Common defects include porosity, cold shuts, and misruns, which can be caused by factors such as improper filling of the die, inadequate venting, or incorrect temperature control.

To prevent these defects, best practices and techniques are employed throughout the casting process. Proper design of the die, including the gating system and overflows, is essential to ensure complete and uniform filling of the cavity. Strategic placement of vents and overflows facilitates the escape of gases, reducing the risk of porosity.

Careful control and optimization of process parameters, including the temperature of the molten aluminum and the die, injection speed, and pressure, are essential. Employing real-time monitoring systems aids in maintaining these parameters within optimal ranges, guaranteeing consistent quality throughout production runs. 

Advanced Inspection Techniques in Quality Control

In the realm of aluminium die casting, advanced inspection techniques play a pivotal role in ensuring the quality and integrity of cast components. These techniques utilize cutting-edge technology to detect and identify defects that may compromise the performance or reliability of the final product.

X-ray Imaging

X-ray imaging stands at the forefront of advanced inspection techniques, offering unparalleled insight into the internal structure of castings. By employing X-ray technology, manufacturers can effectively detect internal defects such as porosity and inclusions that may not be visible on the surface. This non-destructive testing method allows for comprehensive evaluation of the casting's internal integrity, enabling early detection and mitigation of potential issues.

Ultrasonic Testing

Another indispensable technique in quality control is ultrasonic testing, which utilizes high-frequency sound waves to penetrate the material and detect flaws within the casting. By measuring the reflection of these sound waves, ultrasonic testing can identify defects such as voids, cracks, and inclusions that may compromise the structural integrity of the component. This method provides valuable data on the internal condition of the casting, allowing manufacturers to address any defects before they escalate into larger issues.

A person's hand holding an ultrasonic thickness gauge probe on a metal surface, next to a portable ultrasonic flaw detector displaying a graph.Ultrasonic Testing

Machine Vision Systems

Machine vision systems represent a leap forward in surface inspection technology, offering automated detection and classification of surface defects at high speeds. These systems utilize sophisticated cameras and image processing algorithms to analyze the surface of the casting, identifying imperfections such as surface roughness, scratches, and dimensional deviations. By automating the inspection process, machine vision systems streamline quality control operations and ensure consistent and reliable detection of surface defects.

A close-up of a robotic arm carrying a machine vision system while working on a manufacturing line illuminated by purple and blue lighting.Robotic machine vision system

Integration with Statistical Process Control (SPC)

The integration of advanced inspection techniques with statistical process control (SPC) methods enables manufacturers to monitor quality in real-time and make data-driven decisions. By collecting and analyzing data from inspection processes, SPC allows for the identification of trends, patterns, and deviations from established quality standards. This proactive approach to quality control empowers manufacturers to implement corrective actions promptly, reducing the occurrence of defects and enhancing the overall quality of cast components.

Impact on Defect Prevention and Quality Assurance

By implementing these advanced inspection techniques and leveraging SPC methods, die casters can significantly reduce the occurrence of defects, enhance the structural integrity of components, and meet the stringent quality standards demanded by various industries. Early detection of defects allows for timely corrective actions, minimizing scrap rates and ensuring that only components meeting the highest quality standards are delivered to customers. Moreover, the integration of these techniques into the manufacturing process fosters a culture of continuous improvement, driving efficiency, reliability, and customer satisfaction.

Advanced Tooling and Die Maintenance

Die longevity and performance in aluminium die casting hinge on meticulous die design, judicious material selection, and diligent maintenance practices. Advanced tooling techniques are employed to refine die geometry, ensuring optimal metal flow and temperature regulation, which in turn extends die life. Selecting die materials with superior thermal conductivity and wear resistance, such as premium tool steels, is essential for withstanding the rigors of the casting environment. Maintenance practices are a crucial foundation of die performance, impacting both casting quality and die lifespan. Regular cleaning and inspection prevent the accumulation of residues and combat thermal fatigue. Timely repairs and the application of protective coatings stave off premature die wear.

The significance of proper die maintenance transcends tool preservation—it is integral to the consistency and quality of castings. A well-maintained die consistently produces parts within tight tolerances and with the desired surface finish, reducing the incidence of defects. Adherence to a structured maintenance regimen minimizes unexpected downtime and the costs associated with die failure, ensuring a dependable and efficient casting operation.

Advantages of aluminum die casting

  • Complex Geometry: Aluminum die casting allows for the production of intricate and complex shapes with high precision, providing design flexibility that is difficult to achieve with other manufacturing processes.
  • High Strength-to-Weight Ratio: Aluminum die castings offer excellent strength-to-weight ratios, making them ideal for applications where lightweight yet durable components are required, such as in automotive and aerospace industries.
  • Cost-Effectiveness: Aluminum is abundant and relatively inexpensive compared to other metals, making aluminum die casting a cost-effective manufacturing solution, especially for mass production runs.
  • Excellent Thermal Conductivity: Aluminum's high thermal conductivity allows for efficient heat dissipation, making it suitable for applications requiring thermal management, such as in electronic enclosures and heat sinks.
  • Corrosion Resistance: Aluminum naturally forms a protective oxide layer when exposed to air, providing inherent corrosion resistance. Additionally, aluminum alloys can be further enhanced with surface treatments or coatings to improve corrosion resistance even further.
  • Recyclability: Aluminum is highly recyclable, and die castings can be easily melted down and reused without losing their mechanical properties, making aluminum die casting an environmentally friendly option.
  • Shorter Production Time: Aluminum die casting offers shorter production cycles compared to other manufacturing processes, thanks to its high-speed production capabilities and minimal post-processing requirements.
  • Tight Tolerances: Aluminum die casting can achieve tight dimensional tolerances, ensuring consistency and precision in the final components.
  • Reduced Assembly Costs: Aluminum die casting can often consolidate multiple components into a single complex part, reducing assembly time and costs associated with joining multiple parts together.
  • Design Flexibility: With aluminum die casting, designers have the flexibility to incorporate features such as wall thickness, fine details, and intricate shapes, allowing for innovative and aesthetically pleasing designs.


Aluminium die casting is a cornerstone of modern engineering, known for its precision and efficiency in producing complex components. The article highlighted significant advancements in die design, simulation techniques, and process control that have elevated the quality and performance of die-cast products. Innovations such as high-vacuum die casting and real-time monitoring systems have overcome traditional challenges, leading to stronger, more reliable components. As the industry looks forward, the integration of emerging technologies promises to further enhance the sustainability and efficiency of aluminium die casting, expanding its applications and importance in manufacturing.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Why is aluminium not good for die casting?

A: Aluminium is actually highly suitable for die casting due to its lightweight, high strength-to-weight ratio, and excellent thermal and electrical conductivity. However, it can be challenging to cast if the process parameters are not properly controlled, leading to defects such as porosity or inclusions.

Q: What are the benefits of die cast aluminium?

A: Die cast aluminium offers numerous benefits, including the ability to produce complex shapes with high precision, excellent surface finish, good mechanical properties, and the ability to incorporate features that reduce assembly operations.

Q: What is the difference between aluminium and die cast aluminum?

A: "Aluminium" refers to the elemental metal, while "die cast aluminium" refers to the end product created through the die casting process using aluminium alloys.

Q: What aluminum material for die casting?

A: Common aluminium materials for die casting include alloys such as A380, A383, A360, and A413, which are chosen for their castability, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance.

Q: What are the typical defects in aluminium die casting?

A: Porosity, cold shuts, and misruns are typical, arising from improper die filling, inadequate venting, or incorrect temperature management.

Q: How do simulation techniques benefit die casting?

A: Simulation techniques optimize metal flow and solidification, reducing defects and improving the final product's mechanical properties.

Q: What advantages does high-vacuum die casting offer?

A: It minimizes air entrapment and porosity, yielding denser, stronger components with superior surface finishes.

Q: Why is die maintenance crucial?

A: Consistent die maintenance ensures tight tolerances and high-quality castings while extending die life and reducing production costs.

Q: What impact do advanced materials have on die casting?

A: They improve die performance and longevity, allowing for the production of more intricate and durable components.


[1] Sodhi H, Harsimran. (2018). Application of die casting: A review paper. J Manuf Sci Prod, 7:94-100.

[2] Kaye A, Street A. Aluminium alloy die castings. In: Kaye A, Street A, eds. Die Casting Metallurgy. Butterworths Monographs in Materials. Butterworth-Heinemann; 1982. p. 23-43.

[3] Beyerlein IJ, Carpenter JS, Heisterkamp DR, et al. High-vacuum die casting: A revolution in aluminum die casting technology. JOM. 2016;68(10):2660-2671.

[4] Mizgan H, Ganea M. Optimization of aluminium die-casting process through predictive maintenance and parameter traceability systems. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 2022;1256:012028.

[5] Niu Z, Liu G, Li T, Ji S. Effect of high pressure die casting on the castability, defects and mechanical properties of aluminium alloys in extra-large thin-wall castings. J Mater Process Technol. 2022;303:117525.