The Future of Unmanned And Autonomous Vehicles: Advanced Interoperability, Autonomy, And Command & Control Systems

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27 Feb, 2024

Swarm of micro air vehicles create a network (SMAVNET)

Swarm of micro air vehicles create a network (SMAVNET)

Unmanned and autonomous vehicles are transforming mobility across various sectors by attracting significant investment and promising economic growth, despite challenges in interoperability and customer adoption.

Unmanned and autonomous vehicles have revolutionised mobility and the evolving passenger car market, driving billions of dollars in investments to the sector. Even after a series of setbacks in customer adoption, everyone agrees that the future of robotics in autonomous vehicles is bright. It has a massive potential to transform the transportation industry by generating hundreds of billions of dollars and creating massive job opportunities. 

But the influence of unmanned and autonomous vehicles (UAVs) isn't limited to roads alone. Space missions, environmental monitoring, surveillance security and infrastructure monitoring are some UAVs’ applications. Despite their live-changing uses, the lack of interoperability between these advanced mobile techs and their disparate platforms poses a significant challenge to future adoption, hindering multi-vehicle, multi-domain missions.

Interoperability: Enabling Swarm Intelligence

For UAVs, interoperability is defined as a system's capability to work with other systems based on standards or reference models. This concept is crucial for connecting multiple platforms into a coordinated vehicle network, commonly called swarms. Swarms refer to a herd of autonomous vehicles that function as a single unit. Swarms represent the next level in autonomous vehicle technology, as they can multiply the benefits in coverage, time, efficiency, and resolution. Its practical uses are experimented with in firefighting, parcel deliveries, and disaster response. These advantages, however, are only possible if every element of the swarm works in harmony. 

Quadcopter drone. Image credit: DroneBotWorkshop

The above would mean that interoperability trends must focus on better coordination among diverse robot fleets. These swarm-enabling technologies must be functional to make factors like task delegation, path planning, and autonomous communications among these UAVs seamless. This is what recent fleet management software advancements aim to achieve, enhancing communication between unmanned vehicles (UAVs) and enabling simultaneous control. 

In different UAV manufacturing sectors, the goals could be different. For example, robot-to-robot partnerships aim for cross-manufacturer cooperation in disaster relief and environmental monitoring. Cloud robotics integrates cloud computing, improving scalability and data exchange for multi-UAV systems. Integrating AI and ML equips UAVs with autonomous decision-making abilities, aiding adaptability and effective communication with other systems in dynamic scenarios.

Interoperability Trends

The latest trends in interoperability focus on getting UAVs to work together seamlessly. Imagine a team of different robots, like drones, working in sync. Advancements in software design can help them communicate and be controlled simultaneously, regardless of their manufacturer. Another trend is UAVs that can autonomously communicate or 'talk' to each other, for example, teaming to handle disaster management or environmental tasks. Cloud computing is being integrated into robotics to further increase operations and data exchange scalability. Moreover, with the latest advances in AI and ML, UAVs and robots are being introduced to autonomous thinking to provide more efficacious responses in real-time scenarios.

One of the primary challenges in achieving interoperability is the development of standardised communication protocols and data-sharing mechanisms. Conducting research, developing standards, and designing frameworks is essential to ensure seamless data exchange and coordination among various systems, allowing them to operate effectively as a cohesive unit.

Welcoming Standards

Like every new technology, unmanned vehicles require regulations and standards to control and integrate their operations into the existing transportation frameworks. In light of its growing popularity, governments worldwide are currently working on devising regulations and creating standard scenarios for UAV operations. 

Standardisation is crucial for autonomous vehicles, like drones used in disaster relief and environmental tasks. It makes operations safe and reliable and helps different drones work together smoothly. This way, accidents are reduced, and coordination is improved. It also helps follow the rules set by governments, ensuring responsible and legal use.

Standardisation and regulations will also aid in developing UAVs, ensuring that they are built to last, tested, and utilised in a way that complies with safety requirements. These regulations will also influence the design, deployment, and operation of swarm-enabling technology - a combination of hardware and software that allow multi-robot platforms to perform responsive swarming. The technology is just as important as the hardware used in creating these UAVs, as it is the main controlling agent between the swarm commander and the vehicles in the swarm. So, these technologies would be under even more intense scrutiny as the situations in which these UAVs would be used in are likely to be intense. 

Challenges And Solutions To Greater Uav Use

The absence of standardised protocols presents a significant hurdle: UAVs from different makers cannot collaborate effectively. This lack of compatibility hampers the engineering aspects of missions involving multiple vehicles and domains. It also obstructs the advantageous prospect of integrating diverse UAVs into a synchronised network. Consider large-scale search and rescue efforts, where numerous UAV swarms, sourced from various suppliers and groups, must cooperate seamlessly. Comparable scenarios arise in endeavours such as maritime cleanup, environmental monitoring, and delivery operations.

Another issue arises when a UAV communicating with one remote pilot station needs to shift communications to another station. Situations like these require new standards and technologies that are not traditionally included in older regulations. The primary and most crucial step towards interoperability is establishing unified standards for UAVs. Nations around the world have recognised this need, and they are gradually integrating standards and scenarios for UAVs into existing transportation laws. Moreover, a cross-domain command, control, and communications paradigm for heterogeneous unmanned vehicle operations must be established. This paradigm should connect platforms across manufacturers, architectures, and interfaces, enabling seamless communication and coordination between various systems.

Collaborative research and development efforts, establishing partnerships between industry, academia, and government agencies, investment in interoperability research, and training and education in this domain will be essential for addressing the technical challenges associated with interoperability.

These solutions are expected to reduce the costs and complexity of unmanned systems drastically, minimise compatibility issues, lead to successful cross-domain missions, and encourage collaboration and technology development. Greater interoperability is also expected to enhance the operational capabilities of individual UAV systems.

Advanced Navigation and Interoperability

Advanced Navigation is a leading provider of inertial navigation systems and GNSS solutions. The company operates in various industries, including aerospace & defense, maritime, robotics & unmanned vehicles, automotive, and mining. They offer advanced solutions aimed at enhancing the performance of autonomous systems through precise navigation and localisation technologies, making them suitable for applications like drone swarming, precision agriculture, and autonomous vehicles.

Addressing the issue of interoperability in uncrewed vehicle technology, Advanced Navigation recently unveiled Cloud Ground Control (CGC), an innovative SaaS product aimed to reshape how multiple users, vehicles, and domains can efficiently collaborate seamlessly across air, land, sea, and space operations.

CGC is designed to streamline the control and coordination of uncrewed vehicles, allowing pilots and mission planners to oversee a swarm of drones remotely via a simple web browser interface. This platform enables users to manage multi-vehicle operations, access real-time video feeds and telemetry, and efficiently manage collected data. However, what truly sets CGC apart is its capability to run sophisticated AI algorithms directly in the cloud. This enables functionalities like real-time object detection, tracking, classification, and thermal imaging, providing invaluable situational awareness during unfolding events.

One key application of CGC is in search and rescue operations, emergency response, and disaster relief scenarios. By offering complete visibility and control over unmanned vehicles in critical situations, CGC assists in making timely and informed decisions, ultimately saving lives and resources. Furthermore, the cloud-based nature of CGC ensures that essential data and processing power are accessible from anywhere, enhancing operational flexibility.

Advanced Navigation recently launched the CGConnect cellular micro-modem. This device utilises 4G/5G networks to connect UAVs and robotic vehicles to the CGC platform. CGConnect enables live streaming, remote command and control, and AI-powered data analysis through a web browser. It serves as a bridge, securely connecting vehicles regardless of their manufacturer or model, effectively creating a unified autonomous fleet capable of functioning across different domains.

To maintain interoperability among various autonomous vehicles, CGConnect is designed with adherence to industry standards. The platform operates as an open environment, unrestricted by the constraints of manufacturer-specific software. This feature unlocks a world of possibilities for enterprises seeking to manage diverse autonomous vehicles within their fleets. High-grade safeguards against data breaches and vulnerabilities and compliance obligations are maintained, allowing users to operate confidently within established regulations. The integration of edge AI further enhances CGConnect's capabilities, enabling intensive object identification and classification directly on the vehicle, a crucial feature for dynamic missions.

Future Challenges And Opportunities

The major foreseeable challenges in interoperability lie with cybersecurity, scalability, cross-domain standardisation, integration of legacy systems, and customisation and flexibility of UAV systems. Increased connectivity and data exchange will make systems more prone to hacking. Hence, robust data security systems will be essential. Scalability concerns will arise as the number of UAVs grows, and managing and coordinating swarms will become more complex. Other challenges include adopting the same standards across different industries and integrating them into legacy systems. Lastly, with an increased demand for standardisation, it will become difficult for manufacturers to add customisation and innovation to their products.


As autonomous unmanned vehicles (UAVs) shape the future of uncrewed expeditions, the keys to unlocking their full potential lie in advanced interoperability, autonomy, and command systems. Realisation of such advanced systems requires standardised communication protocols, ingenious data-sharing mechanisms, and collective endeavours by stakeholders. Amid this crescendo, Advanced Navigation's Cloud Ground Control (CGC) emerges as a pioneering solution to interoperability in UAV systems by transcending limitations and creating an open platform for diverse vehicles. With the integration of AI, ML, and cloud computing, CGC propels UAV operations towards a new era of collaborative and enhanced capabilities, carving a brighter horizon for the domain of autonomous vehicles.

This article was contributed by Philemon Mayor and Fatima Khalid.


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