Surveillance Quadruped

Four-legged robot for rough-terrain environment surveillance made from standardized parts


MicrocontrollerArduino MKR GSM 1400
Digital I/O pins: 8
Analog I/O pins: 7
PWM: 13
Flash Memory: 256kb
SRAM: 32kb
DC Current per I/O Pin: 7mA
Board Power Supply (USB/VIN): 5V
Clock Speed: 48MHz Radio module
48 MHz
One 12-bit, 350ksps ADC
10-bit, 350ksps DAC
SAM D21: 1.62V – 3.63V
256 KB Flash and 32 KB of SRAM
16-bit Timer/Counters (T/C)
Bluetooth Receiver ModuleHC - 05
Operating Voltage: 4V to 6V
Operating Current: 30mA
Range: <100m
Works with Serial communication
Works with Serial communication
Micro Servo MotorSG-90
Input Voltage: 4.8-6V
PWM Period: 20ms(50HZ)
Rotation: 180 degree
Operating speed: 0.1 s/60 degree
Accelerometer and GyroscopeMPU6050
3-axis Accelerometer and 3-axis Gyroscope
Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Power Supply: 3-5V
Communication: I2C protocol
Built-in 16-bit ADC provides high accuracy
Sound SensorKY – 038
Working voltage: DC 4-6V
Electric condenser microphone
Operating systemFreeRTOS


This tech spec was submitted by Suyash Sonkesaria as part of the University Technology Exposure Program.

Problem / Solution

The Earth's surface area has a 29% landmass area, with only 14.4% having been affected by human activity. The development of a robot that can traverse difficult terrain, investigate areas inaccessible to wheeled unmanned vehicles, replace innocent animals like the K9, and explore other planets can benefit human progress. Currently, four-legged robots are made to leap or walk over barriers. Avoid dangerous footholds, investigate animal and human mobility, and function as two connected biped robots. BigDog, WildCat, Cheetah, and the Titan series are popular four-legged robot designs. However, the cost and mobility of the four-legged robots are sacrificed for their stability and vice versa. 

The new rough-terrain robot design that can mimic the speed, mobility, and autonomy of living organisms. This robot is capable of locomotion in a terrain inaccessible to wheeled vehicle. Terrain sensors, advanced actuators, dynamic controls, sophisticated computing, and power systems are features of the robot. In tough and distant environments, it also serves as a surveillance and reconnaissance tool.


Three sensors, a microprocessor, and an actuator were used in the development of the robot in the paper. The robot is quadruped since it is made to stand on four legs. The robot has eight motors total because each of its four legs has two motors, giving it two degrees of freedom. The servo motor makes it possible for the quadruped robot's arms and legs to be moved. It also functions as the robot's muscle and is attached to every joint, which allows it to move. The mounted motors, which are managed by a microprocessor via PWM, are in charge of moving the invention.

The robot uses acoustic homing for its sound sensor, which uses the sound of a target to direct a moving object. To aid it in rotating while scanning sound, the sensor is mounted on a servo motor. The robot will move to the place of the loudest sound with the transducer. As a result, it can follow instructions and track a target.

An accelerometer and gyroscope are integrated inside the robot to stabilize it, particularly when the robot needs to sit or extend out completely. These sensors do this by keeping track of the robot's height above the ground and the motion's course. A signal will be sent to interrupt the controller once a value is severe.

A SAMD21 microcontroller oversees each of these operations. The SAMD 21 microcontroller served as the model for the Arduino MKR GSM 1400 development board. This board has8 digital input/output pins, 7 analog inputs, 13 PWM pins, and a clock frequency of 48 MHz. The microcontroller can be powered with a USB cable or an AC-to-DC adapter at first, and it is also outfitted with all the other tools required to support it.

Additionally, HC-05, a Bluetooth module, is utilized for safe communication when instructing the robot via control commands. The module also serves as a link between the quadruped microcontroller and the wireless controller.


A research paper describing the challenge, design, and outcome of the research.

Abhishek Kumar, Patil Anjali Sanjay, Suyash Sonkesariya

Wevolver 2023